Espagne-Kosovo, un ballon qui ne tourne pas rond ?

29 March 2021 International

6 min

Ce 31 mars 2021 aura lieu l’affrontement des équipes nationales de football du Kosovo et de l’Espagne. Ce match, joué dans le cadre des poules donnant accès à la Coupe du Monde de 2022 du Qatar, fait couler beaucoup d’encre tant du côté de Madrid que de Priština. Décryptage de cette situation qui dépasse le simple cadre du football dans cet article.

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France and the EU in the Sahel

10 March 2021 International

23 min

On 15 and 16 February 2021, the G5 Sahel gathered in N’Djamena, capital of Chad, to discuss the future of Operation Barkhane. France, which was the initiator of this military operation in 2014, stated from Paris that there will be no reduction of military troops for the time being. Indeed, for some time, France is criticised about its presence in the Sahel, which is seen more and more as neo-colonialist by local populations, as well as by some observers who fear an endless and useless war. Therefore, Paris is wondering whether to stay or leave the region. The N’Djamena meeting seems to have extended the French presence for a little while. France has been fighting jihadists groups for eight years. If it quits, one may fear the strengthening of these organisations. On the opposite, there is a risk of ending in a stalemate. Another actor in the Sahel is the EU, that conducts several civilian missions and funds many development projects. This article will thus describe the deterioration of Mali in 2011-2012 and the first EU reaction. It will then speak about the leading role of France with Operations Serval and Barkhane, and the civilian missions led by the EU. To conclude, we will focus on international actions backed by France and the EU, before analysing the results and the possible future for the Sahel.

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